Geographical environment is considered as one of the important factors influencing the development of human society. The most critical element of the environment is the sea, which occupies almost three-quarters of the
surface of earth. Pakistan is blessed with a sea frontage of 1100 kms, stretching to West and Southeast axis. About 36,000 ships transit through Pakistan’s area of interest each year. Pakistan’s total annual trade is about 38 million tons out of which 95% takes place through sea. Karachi port is handling 68% whereas Port Qasim takes care of 32% of the sea borne trade.
The projected rise in total trade by the year 2015 is 91 million tons. This will increase shipping activity phenomenally at the existing ports. Sea ports provide a vital link to a country with the outside world. These ports can become a main hub of commercial activity and can give a substantial rise to the economy of the country.
Pakistan has very little strategic depth from east to west; Gwadar will increase this strategic depth considerably, as a strategic port being further away from India. The additional distance of 460 Kms away from India will decrease the vulnerability of Pakistan. Gwadar will help Pakistan to monitor the Sea Lines of Communications (SLOCs) originating from the Persian Gulf and bottle neck at Strait of Hormuz. Strategically, considering the establishment of Naval Bases at Gwadar and Ormara by Pakistan, presence of Chinese Naval assets, domination of Arabian Sea at Persian Gulf by U.S 5th Naval Fleet and Indian aspiration to emerge as a Blue Water Navy will be checked. This will also establish Pak-China naval nexus to deny maneavour space to Indian Navy in Indian Ocean.