Category: Foreign Relations of Pakistan

Deals with Pakistan’s relations with all other countries of the world.

Pakistan-Afghanistan crossing closed after border clash

Pakistan-Afghanistan crossing closed after border clash
Afghan and Pakistani forces accuse each other in deadly cross-border battle during Baluchistan population census.

pakistan afghan border
Pakistan and Afghanistan share a roughly 2,500km-long border, which remains largely unpoliced [Matiullah Achakzai/Reuters]
At least 15 people have been killed and dozens others wounded after a cross-border battle between Pakistani and Afghan forces during a Pakistani population census near the border, officials from both countries said.

The attack on Friday left dozens of people wounded and happened near the Chaman crossing point in Balochistan province prompting security forces to ask people to evacuate villages on the border.

Nine Pakistanis and six Afghans were killed in the clashes, which lasted for several hours.

Chaman, one of the two main border crossings between Pakistan and Afghanistan, was closed in the wake of the incident, with firing ongoing, Pakistani military spokesman Asif Ghafoor said in a statement.

“Since April 30, Afghan Border Police had been creating hurdles in conduct of census in divided villages of Killi Luqman and Killi Jahangir in Chaman area, on Pakistani side of the border,” the statement said.

Afghanistan’s foreign ministry said it had warned Pakistan against conducting the census in the villages in the border area, which remains disputed between the two countries.

“This area of dispute the imaginary Durand line is not clear and according to the government of Afghanistan the villages (where the clashes happened) are located on the Afghan side of the border. Pakistan claims that these villages are on their side of the Durand line,” Ahmad Shekib Mostaghni, spokesman for the Afghan foreign ministry, told Al Jazeera.

“They were warned that they should not conduct the census in the disputed areas and they (Pakistan) have also promised us that they would not conduct the census there,” Mostaghni said.

“The violation was committed by Pakistan as the Pakistan armed forces entered the villages of Loqman and Haji Nazar which are located on the Afghan side of the Durand line and areas are elated to the Spin Boldak of Kandahar province. Their defence is the duty of the Afghan national defence forces,” he added.

Pakistan census
Pakistan is currently conducting the second phase of its first door-to-door population census in 19 years, with more than 100,000 enumerators and 200,000 troops taking part in the exercise.

The lead-up to the census has been marked by political debate on how the results may show changing demographics – potentially redrawing electoral constituencies – across the country.

Pakistan and Afghanistan share a roughly 2,500km-long border, which runs through mountainous terrain and remains largely unpoliced.

Pakistan and Afghanistan share a roughly 2,500km-long border, which runs through mountainous terrain and remains largely unpoliced.

Recent Pakistani attempts to establish fences and border posts along the border to curtail the movement of Taliban fighters into Pakistan have been met with resistance from Afghanistan, which disputes the border.

In February, Pakistan sealed all border crossings with Afghanistan for over a month after a wave of attacks across Pakistan killed more than 100 people.

Those attacks were followed by frequent skirmishes between Pakistani Taliban fighters and Pakistan’s military along the border in the Mohmand, Khyber and other districts.

On March 20, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif ordered the reopening of the border crossings.

Since the census was launched in March, government census teams have also come under attack from Taliban fighters.

On April 5, a census team was hit by an explosion in the eastern city of Lahore, killing at least six people.

Two government census workers were also killed when a blast hit a passing passenger van in the northwestern Kurram district on April 25.

The Tehreek-e-Taliban claimed responsibility for both attacks.

News Source:


Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations

Being a neighbor, Pakistan gives paramount importance to its relations with Afghanistan as Pakistan’s peace and stability depends on Afghan peace and stability. Traditionally, Pak-Afghan relationship has been characterized by mutual mistrust and lack of confidence and third parties have always been a decisive factor in determining the Pak-Afghan relations.

Starting from the history since Pakistan got the independence from British Rule in 1947, we have seen rise and fall in the relations between Af-Pak relations so now lets go through the history below :


Durand Line

According to an Article-Gartenstein_Ross-and-Vassefi the Afghanistan’s eastern border was settled in 1893. At the time, Britain had considerable strategic interests in the region because of its perceived need to protect the jewel in its colonial crown, British India. The amir of Afghanistan, Abdur Rahman, opposed Britain’s proposal for the Afghan-Indian border, which would force him to relinquish “his nominal sovereignty over the Pashtun tribes in the region” outside the border favored by the British. The strength of Abdur Rahman’s objection to splitting up the Pashtuns in this manner should not be understated. Historically, the idea of being “Afghan” was tied to being from the Pashtun ethnic group. As James Spain, a former cultural affairs officer at the American embassy in Karachi, has written, the Durand Line that demarcated the border between Afghanistan and British India left “half of a people intimately related by culture, history, and blood on either side.” Yet Abdur Rahman was forced to agree to this border by the threat of economic embargo. He relied on British subsidies to maintain his central government’s dominance, and was in particular need of it when the border was set because he was then engaged in warfare against the

Hazaras Afghanistan has never accepted the legitimacy of the Durand Line (although they should have after the creation of Pakistan), named after its architect, Sir Henry Mortimer Durand. However, the country had little recourse when faced with a global superpower like Britain. This changed with the creation of Pakistan. Afghanistan had long been recognized as an independent state by the time Pakistan was created in 1947 but geopolitical scenario shows Pakistan emerged as more powerful than Afghanistan as visionary state, but some people at that time thought  there was no particular reason to think that Pakistan was built to last. Pakistan’s lack of cohesion is signaled even by its name, as it is an acronym for the areas encompassed within the state: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan Province), Kashmir, Sind, and Baluchistan. Additionally, Pakistan was born of a bloody partition with India—something that produced not only the two states, but also an arch-rivalry that persists to this day.

Just as many Indian leaders thought the new state of Pakistan might not survive, so too did Afghan politicians. Immediately after Pakistan emerged, Afghanistan put forward a demand for the creation of an independent “Pashtunistan,” meaning “land of the Pashtuns.” The idea was that Pakistan should allow the Pashtuns in the northwestern part of their country to—if they so chose—secede and become an independent state. Though the size of the envisioned Pashtunistan differed over time, Afghanistan’s proposals frequently encompassed about half of West Pakistan, including areas dominated by Baluch majorities. Though these demands were framed as supportive of Pashtun national independence, they were in fact irredentist. If Pashtunistan came to exist, it probably wouldn’t remain independent for long, as it would be a fragile and essentially defenseless state. The historical linkage between the Pashtuns and Afghanistan would likely dictate a merger of Pashtunistan into Afghanistan. And even if Pakistan never acceded to the Pashtunistan demand, Afghanistan had essentially staked its claim to that area if the Pakistani state were to fail. The incorporation of Pashtunistan and the majority Baluch areas into Afghanistan would, in turn, solve one of Afghanistan’s major strategic weaknesses—the fact that it’s a landlocked state. The Baluch majority areas would give Afghanistan access to the Arabian Sea. From a legal perspective, Afghanistan’s claim about the illegitimacy of its border with Pakistan was rather weak. Though Afghanistan claimed that the border had been drawn under duress, it had in fact confirmed the demarcation of this international frontier on multiple occasions, including in agreements concluded in 1905, 1919, 1921, and 1930.10 But the weakness of Afghanistan’s legal case took a backseat to the historical connection it felt to the Pashtun areas, and the strategic benefits it would derive from expanding its territory.

This brings us to the episodes in the history between Afghanistan and Pakistan that have so often been missing from contemporary discourse: not only do the two countries have a disputed border, but Afghanistan has rather aggressively pursued actions designed to expand its territory at Pakistan’s expense.

Afghanistan’s early incursions

Afghanistan’s Early Incursions into Pakistan Less than a decade after the birth of the new state of Pakistan, James Spain noted, “relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan have come to be centered on one issue.”11 That single issue was Pashtunistan. It was Afghanistan rather than Pakistan that chose to make this border dispute, and the issue of Pashtunistan, so central to the two states’ relations. At the outset, Afghanistan was the only country to vote against Pakistan’s admission into the United Nations, justifying this vote with the argument that Pakistan’s northwest frontier “should not be recognized as a part of Pakistan until the Pashtuns of that area had been given the opportunity to opt out for independence.”12 Pakistan was admitted despite Afghanistan’s objections. But thereafter Kabul launched a series of low-level attacks against Pakistan, maintaining some degree of plausible deniability throughout (as Pakistan would later do when non-state actors that it sponsored struck at India, Afghanistan, US forces, and others).

George Montagno, who served as a visiting professor of American history at the University of Karachi, has noted that for years after Pakistan’s creation, Afghan agents operated within the Pashtun areas, “distributing large amounts of money, ammunition and even transistor radios in an effort to sway loyalties from Pakistan to Afghanistan.”13 Another of their obvious goals was to build support for an independent Pashtunistan. At the same time that Afghanistan worked to build support within Pakistan’s Pashtun areas, it also escalated its attacks into Pakistan proper. Pakistan claimed that on September 30, 1950, its northern border was attacked by Afghan tribesmen, as well as regular Afghan troops, who crossed into Pakistan 30 miles northeast of Chaman in Baluchistan.

It didn’t take long for Pakistan to repel this low-scale invasion, and the government of Pakistan announced that it had “driven invaders from Afghanistan back across the border after six days of fighting.” For its own part, Afghanistan claimed that it had no involvement in this attack(which we know there was huge support from afghanistan), which it said was comprised exclusively of Pashtun tribesmen agitating for an independent Pashtunistan. But given Afghanistan’s later use of irregular forces dressed as tribesmen, Pakistan’s claims that the aggression had emanated from Afghanistan’s government seem credible. Tensions between Afghanistan and Pakistan rose markedly in 1955, when Pakistan announced that it was consolidating its control over its tribal areas.

In response, Afghan prime minister Mohammed Daoud Khan criticized Pakistan’s actions over the airwaves of Radio Kabul on March 29, 1955. Demonstrations that were reportedly inspired by the Afghan government flared up in Kabul, Kandahar, and Jalalabad. S.M.M. Qureshi of the University of Alberta noted that “Pakistan flags were pulled down and insulted and the [Pashtunistan] flag was hoisted on the chancery of the Pakistan Embassy in Kabul.”16 This incident caused the two countries to withdraw their ambassadors, and relations weren’t fully restored until 1957. The next crisis in Afghanistan-Pakistan relations came in 1960- 61. Khurshid Hasan, at the time a member of the department of international relations at the University of Karachi, recounts, “In 1960, fresh border clashes took place. Afghan irregulars and Army troops dressed as tribesmen were reported to have penetrated the Pakistan side of the Durand Line with the sanction of the Afghan Government. Two other raids took place in May and fall of 1961.”17 News reports from that period corroborate Hasan’s account.

In late September 1960, an Afghan lashkar (irregular forces) crossed into Pakistan’s Bajaur area. Pakistan’s government announced that the lashkar “clashed with loyal tribesmen and fled after suffering heavy casualties.”18 But Pakistan alleged that conventional Afghan military resources, including tanks, had also massed on the Afghan side of the border near Bajaur. What Afghanistan’s official news agency described as “a major battle” eventually broke out between the two sides.

Pakistan bombarded Afghan forces using its airpower; rather than escalating the conflict, this quelled hostilities, at least for the time being. The May 1961 clashes occurred in the area of the Khyber Pass. Pakistani president Muhammad Ayub Khan announced that regular Afghan forces had attacked Pakistani posts at the border. The Pakistani air force strafed Afghan positions in response.21 On May 22, Pakistani warplanes struck again, attempting to wipe out a base of raiding Afghan troops in Baganandail. With this aerial strafing, alongside police patrols, roadblocks, and even bombs going off, the New York Times noted in late May that “relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan appear to have reached a new low, and no relief is in sight.”23 Indeed, after the next skirmishes broke out in the fall of 1961, Afghanistan and Pakistan formally severed diplomatic relations.24 These broken relations had acute economic consequences for both countries, particularly for landlocked Afghanistan. The shah of Iran helped to mediate a détente between the two neighbors in 1963.

The resulting peace lasted about a decade, until Mohammed Daoud Khan (who served as Afghanistan’s prime minister during the 1955 crisis between the countries) deposed his cousin, King Mohammed Zahir Shah, on July 17, 1973. Daoud’s Legacy: A Rivalry Reignited Daoud was an ardent supporter of the Pashtunistan concept, and his passion for the matter produced the collapse of détente. He referred to the border dispute almost immediately upon assuming power, and the independent state for which he agitated included not only Pakistan’s majority Pashtun areas but also its majority Baluch areas.

Daoud’s regime provided sanctuary, arms, and ammunition to Pashtun and Baluch nationalist groups. Pakistan saw this as a significant challenge because its Baluch regions had been in “virtual revolt,” requiring the intervention of Pakistan’s military even before Daoud began to support Baluch separatism.25 Even as Daoud fomented ethnic insurgency inside Pakistan, his regime simultaneously condemned Pakistan before the United Nations for being “genocidal” in its treatment of ethnic minorities. This escalation came at a time when Pakistan had already lost nearly a third of its territory, as East Pakistan seceded in 1971 and became Bangladesh. Rizwan Hussain, a research scholar at The Australian National University, writes that Afghanistan’s actions “posed the greatest threat to Pakistan’s integrity since the secession of East Pakistan.”26

Obviously, this called for a response. Pakistani president Zulfikar Ali Bhutto—a secular reformist whose rule included several questionable decisions that unwittingly empowered Islamist factions 27—fashioned a two-part responsive strategy. One part was to suppress nationalist uprisings in Pakistan’s Frontier. A second part was a “forward policy” that supported violent Islamist factions inside Afghanistan. This was symmetrical with the manner in which Afghanistan had supported violent nationalist groups inside Pakistan. A.Z. Hilali, an assistant professor of political science at the University of Peshawar, notes that Bhutto’s government “found many Afghan Islamists who were useful as a counterweight to the pro-Indian and relatively pro-Soviet policies of Daoud’s government.”28 Afghan Islamists who received covert aid from Pakistan during this time included Gulbuddin Hikmatyar and Burhanuddin Rabbani, both of whom were destined to become important figures during the Afghan-Soviet war and beyond.29 (After the communist-leaning regime of Mohammad Najibullah collapsed in 1992, Hikmatyar became Afghanistan’s “prime minister,” and shelled the capital city held by “president” Rabbani on a daily basis.) There were strategic reasons behind Pakistan’s support for these Islamist factions. For one, Pakistan believed that groups whose primary identification was religious might be less likely to support ethno-nationalist demands of the kind that drove

Afghan policy toward Pakistan’s Pashtuns and Balochs. It also seems that Pakistan believed Islamist groups in Afghanistan were more likely to be hostile toward India. This calculation proved to be correct: The only time since Pakistan’s creation that Afghanistan has had warm relations with Pakistan while simultaneously being hostile to India was during the Taliban’s rule in the 1990s. Thus, Pakistan’s initial support for violent Islamist groups in Afghanistan was spurred directly by the Afghan government’s sponsorship of separatist groups in Pakistan under the Daoud regime, as well as aggressive Afghan actions that had preceded Daoud. Pakistan’s support for such groups would of course grow during the 1980s, which saw the Afghan-Soviet war grip the region, and also during the 1990s, when Pakistan supported the Taliban during Afghanistan’s civil war. Conclusion: Af-Pak History and Contemporary US Policy Overall, the factors driving Pakistan’s support for violent Islamist groups in Afghanistan represent a tangled web. There are, of course, strategic calculations behind Pakistan’s support for these groups—strategic calculations that began with Afghanistan’s escalating aggression against Pakistan, but also came to encompass the need for “strategic depth” in Pakistan’s rivalry with India. Personal relationships would develop between Pakistani officers and the non-state actors they supported.

There were also changes to Pakistan’s military culture, which—though the precise degree to which this occurred has been debated by scholars—clearly underwent some degree of “Islamization.” This process began under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto,30 but escalated markedly under Gen. Muhammad Zia ul Haq, who deposed Bhutto in a July 1977 military coup. Zia brought a number of changes to the Pakistani military after his coup. These included incorporating Islamic teachings (such as S.K. Malik’s The Qur’anic Concept of War) into military training, incorporating religious criteria into officers’ promotion requirements and exams, and requiring formal obedience to Islamic rules within the military. At the same time Zia implemented these policies, the demographics of the officer corps were shifting. The first generation of officers from the country’s generally secular social elites was replaced by new junior officers from Pakistan’s poorer northern districts. Pakistani journalist Zahid Hussain notes that “the spirit of liberalism, common in the ‘old’ army, was practically unknown to them. They were products of a social class that, by its very nature, was conservative and easily influenced by Islamic fundamentalism.”31 So the potent mix of motivations impelling Pakistan’s support for Islamist groups in Afghanistan included strategic calculations, personal relationships, and changes to the organizational culture of Pakistan’s military. This mix of motivations was underestimated by American planners in the early stages of the US war in Afghanistan. Following US deputy secretary of state Richard Armitage’s now-infamous post-9/11 threat to bomb Pakistan “back to the Stone Age” if it didn’t reorient itself away from the Taliban,32 Musharraf executed the about-face to which we referred at the beginning of this article, announcing that Pakistani groups would not be allowed to engage in terrorism. We noted that the announced changes did not hold up. The reason lies in the fact that, as Zahid Hussain has written, “Musharraf’s decision to forge a partnership with America meant taking Pakistan to war with itself.” 33 Indeed, one of the biggest problems lies in the fact that American planners didn’t realize the utter likelihood of this failure. The mistaken belief that Pakistan’s turn away from supporting stateless Islamist militants in 2001–02 might be permanent helped to seriously retard the US’s development of a coherent policy dealing with the many problems emanating from Pakistan. But the legacy of this forgotten period in Afghanistan-Pakistan relations—the period of Afghan aggression against Pakistan over the Pashtunistan issue—continues to be relevant today. Put simply, some issues will resonate more deeply with Pakistan than Americans believe. Bellicose Afghan statements following major attacks in their country may be justified, but these statements may also strike a chord that reminds Pakistanis of days when they were neither the stronger of the two neighbors, nor the more aggressive one.

Further, when the United States pursues cross-border tribal unity to try to stabilize Afghanistan—as it has done, for example, in Nangarhar province—it may trigger concerns on the Pakistani side about a possible Pashtun uprising. This forgotten history, and the tangled web of motivations that it helped produce, makes clear how truly difficult a simple-sounding proposition like “change Pakistan’s strategic orientation” can be. None of this is meant to forgive the pernicious role that Pakistan currently plays within Afghanistan. But one clear problem of the past decade has been a failure to appreciate Pakistani strategic calculations. Fully comprehending the period in the relationship between Afghanistan and Pakistan outlined in this article may be an important part of forging more appropriate policies moving forward.


Y – Charles Faint served as Lead Editor for this article.


1 Richard Weitz, “How Pakistan Kids Itself on China,” The Diplomat, Dec. 28, 2011.

2 Elisabeth Bumiller & Jane Perlez, “Pakistan’s Spy Agency is Tied to Attack on U.S. Embassy,” New York Times, Sept. 22, 2011.

3 Paul Tighe & Haris Anwar, “Obama Says Pakistan Has ‘Unsavory’ Contacts to Hedge Bets in Afghanistan,” Bloomberg, Oct. 6, 2011.

4 Mark Mazzetti & Eric Schmitt, “CIA Outlines Pakistan Links with Militants,” New York Times, July 30, 2008.

5 See Nick Schifrin, “WikiLeaks Data Seem to Show Pakistan Helped Attack American Troops,” ABC News, July 26, 2010 (elaborating on internal US assessments, as revealed by WikiLeaks documents); Matt Waldman, The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents, London School of Economics, Crisis States Research Centre, Discussion Paper 18, June 2010.

6 Zahid Hussain, Frontline Pakistan: The Struggle with Militant Islam (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), p. 51.

7 Thomas Barfield, Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), p. 154.

8 James W. Spain, “Pakistan’s North West Frontier,” Middle East Journal 8(1), 1954, p. 30.

9 Husain Haqqani, Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005), p.10.

10 Khurshid Hasan, “Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations,” Asian Survey 2(7), 1962, p. 15. 11 Spain, “Pakistan’s North West Frontier,” p. 35.

12 Hasan, “Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations,” p. 16.

13 George L. Montagno, “The Pak-Afghan Détente,” Asian Survey 3(12), 1963, p. 620.

14 “Pakistan Says Afghans Launch War,” Associated Press, Oct. 4, 1950.

15 “Invaders Out, Pakistan Says,” Associated Press, Oct. 5, 1950.

16 S.M.M. Qureshi, “Pakhtunistan: The Frontier Dispute between Afghanistan and Pakistan,” Pacific Affairs 39(1/2), 1966, p. 105.

17 Hasan, “Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations,” p. 16.

18 “Pakistan Fears Afghan Invasion,” Reuters, Sept. 23, 1960.

19 “Incursion by Afghans ‘Beaten Back,’ Says Pakistan,” Guardian (London), Sept. 29, 1960.

20 “Afghans Report Pakistani Clash,” Reuters, Oct. 8, 1960.

21 “Regular Afghan Army Battles Pakistanis in Khyber Pass Area,” Associated Press, May 21, 1961.

22 “Pakistan Planes Again Strafe Afghan Base,” Associated Press, May 23, 1961.

23 Paul Grimes, “Afghan-Pakistan Border Tense as Dispute on Tribe Worsens,” New York Times, May 29, 1961.

24 “Afghanistan Breaks with Pakistan,” Reuters, Sept. 6, 1961.

25 Rizwan Hussain, Pakistan and the Emergence of Islamic Militancy in Afghanistan (Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2005), p. 78.

26 Ibid. 27 One example is Bhutto’s policy toward Pakistan’s Ahmadis. See Hassan Abbas, Pakistan’s Drift into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America’s War on Terror (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2005), pp. 81-82.

28 A.Z. Hilali, U.S.-Pakistan Relationship: Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2005), p. 104.

29 Hafizullah Emadi, “Durand Line and Afghan-Pak Relations,” Economic and Political Weekly, July 14, 1990.

30 Stephen P. Cohen, interview with Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, Nov. 24, 2008.

31 Hussain, Frontline Pakistan, p. 20.

32 Pervez Musharraf, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir (New York: Free Press, 2006), p. 201.

33 Hussain, Frontline Pakistan, p. viii.



China overtakes US as top direct foreign investor in Pakistan

China is overtaking the US as the largest direct foreign investor in Pakistan, with the South Asian nation increasingly favouring its neighbour’s “One Belt, One Road” trade route that is funnelling in billions of dollars and revamping decrepit infrastructure.

With relations frayed between the United States and Pakistan, China has been strengthening its ties to the nation of about 200 million people after it pledged two years ago to loan and finance about US$55 billion (S$77 billion) in a so-called China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

US direct investment in Pakistan stood at US$505 million – from July 2013 to January this year, compared with US$1.82 billion that came from neighbouring China, according to central bank data.

Pakistan sends relief to drought-hit Sri Lanka

March 30, 2017 foreign office spokesperson says Pakistan will continue to provide all possible support to drought hit people of Sri Lanka. The shipment of 10,000 metric ton rice to Sri Lanka in that country started on Thursday. the first shipment of rice sent today will reach Sri Lanka on Monday. Earlier 25 metric ton of rice was dispatched to Colombo on 8th of last month as immediate short term assistance. Foreign office of Pakistan says that Pakistan stands shoulder to shoulder to Sri Lanka in this time of need.

Pakistan relief air craft in Colombo.

Germany vs Pakistan

 Pakistan vs Germany


Pakistan Germany
Background The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars – in 1947-48 and 1965 – over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 – in which India capitalized on Islamabad’s marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics – resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. As Europe’s largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent’s economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.


Pakistan Germany
Location Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Geographic coordinates 30 00 N, 70 00 E 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Map references Asia Europe
Area total: 796,095 sq km
land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
total: 357,022 sq km
land: 348,672 sq km
water: 8,350 sq km
Area – comparative slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California three times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries total: 7,257 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,670 km, China 438 km, India 3,190 km, Iran 959 km
total: 3,694 km
border countries: Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 447 km, Switzerland 348 km
Coastline 1,046 km 2,389 km
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Terrain flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Natural resources land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Land use arable land: 26.02%
permanent crops: 1.05%
other: 72.93% (2011)
arable land: 33.25%
permanent crops: 0.56%
other: 66.19% (2011)
Irrigated land 199,900 sq km (2008) 5,157 sq km (2006)
Natural hazards frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August) flooding
Environment – current issues water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU’s Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environment – international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography – note controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
Total renewable water resources 246.8 cu km (2011) 154 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) total: 183.5 cu km/yr (5%/1%/94%)
per capita: 1,038 cu m/yr (2008)
total: 32.3 cu km/yr (16%/84%/0%)
per capita: 391.4 cu m/yr (2007)


Pakistan Germany
Population 196,174,380 (July 2014 est.) 80,996,685 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.3% (male 33,595,949/female 31,797,766)
15-24 years: 21.5% (male 21,803,617/female 20,463,184)
25-54 years: 35.7% (male 36,390,119/female 33,632,395)
55-64 years: 5.1% (male 5,008,681/female 5,041,434)
65 years and over: 4.3% (male 3,951,190/female 4,490,045) (2014 est.)
0-14 years: 13% (male 5,386,525/female 5,107,336)
15-24 years: 10.6% (male 4,367,713/female 4,188,566)
25-54 years: 41.7% (male 17,116,346/female 16,664,995)
55-64 years: 13.6% (male 5,463,221/female 5,574,166)
65 years and over: 21.1% (male 7,468,552/female 9,659,265) (2014 est.)
Median age total: 22.6 years
male: 22.6 years
female: 22.6 years (2014 est.)
total: 46.1 years
male: 45.1 years
female: 47.2 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate 1.49% (2014 est.) -0.18% (2014 est.)
Birth rate 23.19 births/1,000 population (2014 est.) 8.42 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate 6.58 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.) 11.29 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate -1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.) 1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate total: 57.48 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 60.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
total: 3.46 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.75 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 67.05 years
male: 65.16 years
female: 69.03 years (2014 est.)
total population: 80.44 years
male: 78.15 years
female: 82.86 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate 2.86 children born/woman (2014 est.) 1.43 children born/woman (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate 0.1% (2012 est.) 0.1% (2009 est.)
Nationality noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
noun: German(s)
adjective: German
Ethnic groups Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28% German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS 86,700 (2012 est.) 67,000 (2009 est.)
Religions Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.) Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
HIV/AIDS – deaths 3,500 (2012 est.) fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
Languages Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8% German (official)
note: Lower Sorbian, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, and Upper Sorbian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 54.9%
male: 68.6%
female: 40.3% (2009 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2012)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2011)
Education expenditures 2.1% of GDP (2012) 5.1% of GDP (2010)
Urbanization urban population: 36.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 73.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: -0.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water source improved:
urban: 95.7% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 91.4% of population
urban: 4.3% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2012 est.)
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access improved:
urban: 71.8% of population
rural: 33.6% of population
total: 47.4% of population
urban: 28.2% of population
rural: 66.4% of population
total: 52.4% of population (2012 est.)
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities – population Karachi 13.876 million; Lahore 7.566 million; Faisalabad 3.038 million; Rawalpindi 2.164 million; Multan 1.775 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 919,000 (2011) BERLIN (capital) 3.462 million; Hamburg 1.796 million; Munich 1.364 million; Cologne 1.006 million (2011)
Maternal mortality rate 260 deaths/100,000 live births (2010) 7 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight 30.9% (2011) 1.1% (2006)
Health expenditures 2.5% of GDP (2011) 11.1% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density 0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2009) 3.69 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density 0.6 beds/1,000 population (2010) 8.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity – adult prevalence rate 5.5% (2008) 25.1% (2008)
Mother’s mean age at first birth 23.4
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012-13 est.)
29.2 (2012 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate 27% (2007/08) 66.2%
note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2005)
Dependency ratios total dependency ratio: 60.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 53.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.1 %
potential support ratio: 14.2 (2014 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 19.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 32.3 %
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2014 est.)


Pakistan Germany
Country name conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Government type federal republic federal republic
Capital name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Berlin
geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
16 states (Laender, singular – Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note – Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular – Freistaat)
Independence 14 August 1947 (from British India) 18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)
National holiday Pakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940); note – commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Constitution several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times); amended many times, last in 2012 (2012) previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
Legal system common law system with Islamic law influence civil law system
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal; note – there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch chief of state: President Mamnoon HUSSAIN (since 9 September 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 5 June 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
elections: president elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister selected by the National Assembly
election results: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; Mamnoon HUSSAIN 432 votes, Wajihuddin AHMED 77 votes
chief of state: President Joachim GAUCK (since 23 March 2012)
head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor
elections: president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 19 February 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Parliament for a four-year term; Federal Parliament vote for Chancellor last held on 17 December 2013 (next to be held after the September 2017 elections)
election results: Joachim GAUCK elected president; received 991 votes of the Federal Convention against 126 for Beate KLARSFELD and 3 for Olaf ROSE; Angela MERKEL reelected chancellor; vote by Federal Parliament 462 to 150 with four abstentions
Legislative branch bicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories’ representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; members serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate – last held on 2 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2015); National Assembly – last held on 11 May 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PPPP 41, PML-N 14, ANP 12, JUI-F 7, MQM 7, PML-Q 5, BNP-A 4, NPP 1, PML-F 1, independents 12; National Assembly – percent of votes by party – NA; seats by party as of June 2013) – PML-N 126, PPPP 31, PTI 28, MQM 18, JUI-F 10, PML-F 5, other 22, independents 25, unfilled seats 7; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims
bicameral legislature consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments sit in the Council; each has three to six votes in proportion to population and is required to vote as a block) and the Federal Parliament or Bundestag (630 seats; members elected by popular vote for a four-year term under a system of personalized proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain proportional representation and caucus recognition)
elections: Bundestag – last held on 22 September 2013 (next to be held no later than autumn 2017); most all postwar German governments have been coalitions; note – there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
election results: Bundestag – percent of vote by party – CDU/CSU 41.5%, SPD 25.7%, Left 8.6%, Greens 8.4%, FDP 4.8%, other 10.9%; seats by party – CDU/CSU 311, SPD 193, Left 64, Greens 63
Judicial branch highest court(s): Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member Majlis-e-Shoora (parliamentary) Committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission (a 9-member body of several judges and other judicial professionals), and appointed by the president of Pakistan; justices can serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues such as taxation, banking, customs, etc.
highest court(s): Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges including the court president, vice-presidents, presiding judges, and other judges, and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels; Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated States and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president of Germany; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges – one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68
subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 German states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts
Political parties and leaders Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]
Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A
Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]
Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M
Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Syed Munawar HASAN]
Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP
Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]
Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazl-ur REHMAN]
Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]
Jamiat-i Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Abul Khair ZUBAIR]
Millat-e-Jafferia [Allama Sajid NAQVI]
Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]
National Peoples Party or NPP
Pakhtun-khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]
Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]
Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid-i Azam or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]
Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]
Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]
Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, co-chairman]
Pakistan Peoples Party-S [Aftab Ahmad SHERPAO]
Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]
Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Alliance ’90/Greens [Cem OEZDEMIR and Simone PETER]
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]
Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]
Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
Left Party or Die Linke [Katia KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Sigmar GABRIEL]
Political pressure groups and leaders other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants business associations and employers’ organizations
trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
International organization participation ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jalil Abbas JILANI (since 10 March 2014)
chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (CA)
consulate(s): Chicago, Houston
chief of mission: Ambassador Hans Peter WITTIG (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2300 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4261
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Richard OLSON (since 24 September 2012)
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: 8100 Islamabad Pl., Washington, DC 20521-8100
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 227-6427
consulate(s) general: Karachi
consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
chief of mission: Ambassador John B. EMERSON (since 7 August 2013)
embassy: Pariser Platz 2, 10117 Berlin
mailing address: Unit 5090, Box 1000, DPO AE09265
telephone: [49] (30) 48305-0
FAX: [49] (30) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Flag description green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor – a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field
National anthem name: “Qaumi Tarana” (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA
note: adopted 1954; the anthem is also known as “Pak sarzamin shad bad” (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)
name: “Das Lied der Deutschen” (Song of the Germans)
lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN
note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as “Deutschlandlied” (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, “Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles” (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany
International law organization participation accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Pakistan Germany
Economy – overview Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan’s export earnings, and Pakistan’s failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment was 6.6% in 2013, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Over the past few years, low growth and high inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of poverty. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis. Although the economy has stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy, security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging about $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan’s current account turned to deficit in the following two years, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3.5% per year from 2008 to 2013. Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, more than half of which is under 22. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and reducing dependence on foreign donors. The German economy – the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe’s largest – is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and declining net immigration are increasing pressure on the country’s social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms. Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, has contributed to strong growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession – the deepest since World War II – and its decrease to 5.3% in 2013. The new German government introduced a minimum wage of $11 per hour to take effect in 2015. Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL’s second term increased Germany’s total budget deficit – including federal, state, and municipal – to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2012 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.1%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016 though the target was already reached in 2012. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country’s 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany hopes to replace nuclear power with renewable energy. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production.
GDP (purchasing power parity) $574.1 billion (2013 est.)
$554.2 billion (2012 est.)
$531 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$3.227 trillion (2013 est.)
$3.211 trillion (2012 est.)
$3.182 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP – real growth rate 3.6% (2013 est.)
4.4% (2012 est.)
3.7% (2011 est.)
0.5% (2013 est.)
0.9% (2012 est.)
3.4% (2011 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP) $3,100 (2013 est.)
$3,100 (2012 est.)
$3,000 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$39,500 (2013 est.)
$39,200 (2012 est.)
$38,900 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector agriculture: 25.3%
industry: 21.6%
services: 53.1% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 0.8%
industry: 30.1%
services: 69%
(2013 est.)
Population below poverty line 22.3% (FY05/06 est.) 15.5% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 39.3% (FY05/06)
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.7% (2013 est.)
9.7% (2012 est.)
1.6% (2013 est.)
2.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force 59.21 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2012 est.)
44.2 million (2013 est.)
Labor force – by occupation agriculture: 45.1%
industry: 20.7%
services: 34.2% (2010 est.)
agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 24.6%
services: 73.8%
Unemployment rate 6.6% (2013 est.)
6% (2012 est.)
note: substantial underemployment exists
5.3% (2013 est.)
5.5% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income – Gini index 30.6 (FY07/08)
41 (FY98/99)
27 (2006)
30 (1994)
Budget revenues: $29.71 billion
expenditures: $47.97 billion (2013 est.)
revenues: $1.626 trillion
expenditures: $1.624 trillion (2013 est.)
Industries textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp among the world’s largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Industrial production growth rate 3.5% (2013 est.) -0.3% (2013 est.)
Agriculture – products cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry
Exports $25.05 billion (2013 est.)
$24.71 billion (2012 est.)
$1.493 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.46 trillion (2012 est.)
Exports – commodities textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products
Exports – partners US 13.6%, China 11.1%, UAE 8.5%, Afghanistan 7.8% (2012) France 9.21%, United States 7.85%, United Kingdom 6.53%, Netherlands 6.33%, China 5.91%, Italy 5.05%, Austria 5.03%, Switzerland 4.3%, Belgium 4.04% (2013 est.)
Imports $39.27 billion (2013 est.)
$40.07 billion (2012 est.)
$1.233 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.222 trillion (2012 est.)
Imports – commodities petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products
Imports – partners China 19.7%, Saudi Arabia 12.3%, UAE 12.1%, Kuwait 6.3% (2012) Netherlands 12.88%, France 7.61%, China 6.25%, Belgium 6.13%, Italy 5.31%, United Kingdom 4.61%, Austria 4.33%, United States 4.19%, Switzerland 4.3%, Austria 4.1%, Poland 4% (2013 est.)
Debt – external $52.43 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$54.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$5.717 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$5.338 trillion (31 December 2011)
Exchange rates Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar –
100.4 (2013 est.)
93.3952 (2012 est.)
85.194 (2010 est.)
81.71 (2009)
70.64 (2008)
euros (EUR) per US dollar –
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)
Fiscal year 1 July – 30 June calendar year
Public debt 54.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
52.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
79.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
81% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euro; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $11.18 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$13.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$248.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$238.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Current Account Balance -$2.36 billion (2013 est.)
-$2.072 billion (2012 est.)
$257.1 billion (2013 est.)
$238.5 billion (2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate) $236.5 billion (2013 est.) $3.593 trillion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home $24.33 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$22.73 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.335 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.307 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad $1.569 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.519 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.871 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.788 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares $NA (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA (31 December 2011)
$38.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.486 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.184 trillion (31 December 2011)
$1.43 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate 12% (31 January 2012 est.)
14% (31 December 2010 est.)
0.75% (31 December 2013)
1.5% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank’s rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate 11.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
12.41% (31 December 2012 est.)
2.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
3.07% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit $106.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$94.65 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.457 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.277 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money $71.96 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$62.29 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$2.158 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.025 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money $93.11 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$82.63 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.551 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.342 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues 12.6% of GDP (2013 est.) 45.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -7.7% of GDP (2013 est.) 0.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 total: 7.7%
male: 7%
female: 10.5% (2008)
total: 8.1%
male: 8.8%
female: 7.4% (2012)
GDP – composition, by end use household consumption: 81%
government consumption: 10.8%
investment in fixed capital: 12.6%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 12.7%
imports of goods and services: -18.8%
(2013 est.)
household consumption: 57.6%
government consumption: 19.4%
investment in fixed capital: 17.5%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 49.5%
imports of goods and services: -44.1%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving 12.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
13.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
12.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2011 est.)


Pakistan Germany
Electricity – production 94.65 billion kWh (2011 est.) 526.6 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity – consumption 70.1 billion kWh (2011 est.) 582.5 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity – exports 0 kWh (2012 est.) 66.81 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity – imports 0 kWh (2012 est.) 46.27 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Oil – production 61,660 bbl/day (2012 est.) 169,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Oil – imports 151,200 bbl/day (2010 est.) 1.876 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – exports 0 bbl/day (2010 est.) 14,260 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – proved reserves 247.5 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.) 254.2 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves 679.6 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.) 125 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas – production 39.15 billion cu m (2011 est.) 9 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas – consumption 42.9 billion cu m (2011 est.) 75.2 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas – exports 0 cu m (2011 est.) 18.17 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas – imports 0 cu m (2011 est.) 87.96 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity 22.27 million kW (2010 est.) 178.4 million kW (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products – production 210,100 bbl/day (2010 est.) 2.198 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products – consumption 426,700 bbl/day (2011 est.) 2.4 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products – exports 34,660 bbl/day (2010 est.) 376,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products – imports 227,100 bbl/day (2010 est.) 758,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 139.7 million Mt (2011 est.) 814 million Mt (2012 est.)


Pakistan Germany
Telephones – main lines in use 5.803 million (2012) 50.7 million (2012)
Telephones – mobile cellular 125 million (2013) 107.7 million (2012)
Telephone system general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks;
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, exceeding 110 million by the end of 2011, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; more than 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage and more than half of all Pakistanis have access to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting fixed-line service to rural areas
international: country code – 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations – 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2011)
general assessment: Germany has one of the world’s most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
international: country code – 49; Germany’s international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2011)
Internet country code .pk .de
Internet users 20.431 million (2009) 65.125 million (2009)
Internet hosts 365,813 (2012) 20.043 million (2012)
Broadcast media media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 5 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 40 stations; nearly 100 commercially licensed privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2007) a mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008)


Pakistan Germany
Railways total: 7,791 km
broad gauge: 7,479 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 312 km 1.000-m gauge (2007)
total: 41,981 km
standard gauge: 41,722 km 1.435-m gauge (20,053 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 220 km 1.000-m gauge (75 km electrified); 39 km 0.750-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways total: 262,256 km
paved: 189,218 km (includes 708 km of expressways)
unpaved: 73,038 km (2010)
total: 645,000 km
paved: 645,000 km (includes 12,800 km of expressways)
note: includes local roads (2010)
Pipelines gas 12,646 km; oil 2,576 km; refined products 1,087 km (2013) condensate 37 km; gas 26,985 km; oil 2,826 km; refined products 4,479 km; water 8 km (2013)
Ports and terminals major seaport(s): Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
container port(s) (TEUs): Karachi (1,545,434)
major seaport(s): Baltic Sea – Rostock; North Sea – Wilhelmshaven
river port(s): Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe); Lubeck (Wakenitz)
oil/gas terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals
container port(s): Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,915,487), Hamburg (9,014,165)(2011)
Merchant marine total: 11
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3
registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 5, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)
total: 427
by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 6, cargo 51, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, container 298, liquefied gas 6, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 6, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 6 (Finland 3, Netherlands 1, Switzerland 2)
registered in other countries: 3,420 (Antigua and Barbuda 1094, Australia 2, Bahamas 30, Bermuda 14, Brazil 6, Bulgaria 12, Burma 1, Cayman Islands 3, Cook Islands 1, Curacao 25, Cyprus 192, Denmark 9, Dominica 5, Estonia 1, France 1, Gibraltar 123, Hong Kong 10, Isle of Man 56, Jamaica 10, Liberia 1185, Luxembourg 9, Malta 135, Marshall Islands 248, Morocco 1, Netherlands 86, NZ 2, Panama 24, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 2, Portugal 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Singapore 32, Slovakia 3, Spain 4, Sri Lanka 8, Sweden 3, UK 59, US 5, Venezuela 1) (2010)
Airports 151 (2013) 539 (2013)
Airports – with paved runways total: 108
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
total: 318
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 49
1,524 to 2,437 m: 60
914 to 1,523 m: 70
under 914 m: 125 (2013)
Airports – with unpaved runways total: 43
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m:
24 (2013)
total: 221
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m:
185 (2013)
Heliports 23 (2013) 23 (2013)


Pakistan Germany
Military branches Pakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza’ya) (2013) Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer); Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm); Air Force (Luftwaffe); Joint Support Services (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB); Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw) (2013)
Military service age and obligation 16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors; the Pakistan Air Force recruits aviation technicians at age 15; service obligation (Navy) 10-18 years; retirement required after 18-30 years service or age 40-52 (2012) 17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)
Manpower available for military service males age 16-49: 48,453,305
females age 16-49: 44,898,096 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 18,529,299
females age 16-49: 17,888,543 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service males age 16-49: 37,945,440
females age 16-49: 37,381,549 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 15,027,886
females age 16-49: 14,510,527 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually male: 2,237,723
female: 2,104,906 (2010 est.)
male: 405,438
female: 384,930 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures – percent of GDP 3.04% of GDP (2012)
3.13% of GDP (2011)
3.04% of GDP (2010)
1.35% of GDP (2012)
1.34% of GDP (2011)
1.35% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Pakistan Germany
Disputes – international various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world’s largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan’s ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India’s fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India’s Gujarat State; since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated 3.8 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.6 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps none
Illicit drugs significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center
Refugees and internally displaced persons refugees (country of origin): 2.6 million (1.6 million registered, 1 million undocumented ) (Afghanistan) (2014)
IDPs: 930,000 (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2014)
refugees (country of origin): 40,230 (Iraq); 24,449 (Turkey); 24,203 (Afghanistan); 21,253 (Syria); 17,150 (Iran); 8,410 (Serbia) (2013)
stateless persons: 5,683 (2012)