Apple Inc.

Apple is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. The company’s hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple smartwatch, and the Apple TV digital media player. Apple’s consumer software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, Apple Music, and iCloud.Apple_logo_black

Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell personal computers.[6] It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, and was renamed as Apple Inc. in January 2007 to reflect its shifted focus toward consumer electronics. Apple (NASDAQ: AAPL) joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average in March 2015.[7]

Apple is the world’s largest information technology company by revenue, the world’s largest technology company by total assets,[8] and the world’s second-largest mobile phone manufacturer, by volume, after Samsung.[9] In November 2014, Apple became the first U.S. company to be valued at over US$700 billion in addition to being the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization.[10] The company employs 115,000 full-time employees as of July 2015[4] and maintains 478 retail stores in seventeen countries as of March 2016.[1] It operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the world’s largest music retailer. Consumers use more than one billion Apple products worldwide as of March 2016.[11]

Apple’s worldwide annual revenue totaled $233 billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015.[3] This revenue accounts for approximately 1.25% of the total United States GDP.[12] The company enjoys a high level of brand loyalty and, according to Interbrand’s annual Best Global Brands report, has been the world’s most valuable brand for 4 years in a row,[13][14][15] with a valuation in 2016 of $178.1 billion.[16] The corporation receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials.
History

Main article: History of Apple Inc.
1976–84: Founding and incorporation

The birthplace of Apple Computer. In 1976, Steve Jobs founded the company in the garage of this house on Crist Drive in Los Altos, California.

Apple’s first product, The Apple I, was sold as an assembled circuit board and lacked basic features such as a keyboard, monitor, and case. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden case.

The Apple II, introduced in 1977, was a major technological advancement over its predecessor.
Apple was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne[17][18]to sell the Apple I personal computer kits. The Apple I kits were computers single-handedly designed and hand-built by Wozniak[19][20] and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club.[21] The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips), which was less than what is now considered a complete personal computer.[22] The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66 ($2,806 in 2017 dollars, adjusted for inflation).[23][24][25][26][27][28]

Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977,[29] without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800.[18] Multimillionaire Mike Markkulaprovided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple.[30][31] During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980 yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118m, an average annual growth rate of 533%.[32]

The Apple II, also invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.[33] The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first “killer app” of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office.[34] Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place competitor to Commodore and Tandy.[35][36]

By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. The company introduced the Apple III in May 1980 in an attempt to compete with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market.[37] Jobs and several Apple employees, including Jef Raskin, visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy 100,000 shares (800,000 split-adjusted shares) of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share.[38]

Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI), and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa.[39] In 1982, however, he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting. Jobs took over Jef Raskin’s low-cost-computer project, the Macintosh. A race broke out between the Lisa team and the Macintosh team over which product would ship first. Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles.[40]

On December 12, 1980, Apple went public at $22 per share,[41] generating more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly creating more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history.[42]

1984–91: Success with Macintosh

See also: Timeline of Macintosh models

The Macintosh, released in 1984, was the first mass-market personal computer that featured an integral graphical user interface and mouse.
In 1984, Apple launched the Macintosh, the first personal computer to be sold without a programming language.[43] Its debut was signified by “1984”, a $1.5 million television commercial directed by Ridley Scott that aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIIIon January 22, 1984.[44] The commercial is now hailed as a watershed event for Apple’s success[45] and a “masterpiece”.[46][47]

The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong[48] due to its high price and limited range of software titles. The machine’s fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first PostScript laser printer to be sold at a reasonable price, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing package. It has been suggested that the combination of these three products were responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market.[49] The Macintosh was particularly powerful in the desktop publishing market due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which had necessarily been built in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI.

In 1985, a power struggle developed between Jobs and CEO John Sculley, who had been hired two years earlier.[50] The Apple board of directors instructed Sculley to “contain” Jobs and limit his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products. Rather than submit to Sculley’s direction, Jobs attempted to oust him from his leadership role at Apple. Sculley found out that Jobs had been attempting to organize a coup and called a board meeting at which Apple’s board of directors sided with Sculley and removed Jobs from his managerial duties.[48] Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. the same year.[51]
The Macintosh Portable, released in 1989, was Apple’s first battery-powered portable Macintosh personal computer.
After Jobs’ departure, the Macintosh product line underwent a steady change of focus to higher price points, the so-called “high-right policy” named for the position on a chart of price vs. profits. Jobs had argued the company should produce products aimed at the consumer market and aimed for a $1000 price for the Macintosh, which they were unable to meet. Newer models selling at higher price points offered higher profit margin, and appeared to have no effect on total sales as power users snapped up every increase in power. Although some worried about pricing themselves out of the market, the high-right policy was in full force by the mid-1980s, notably due to Jean-Louis Gassée’s mantra of “fifty-five or die”, referring to the 55% profit margins of the Macintosh II.[52]

This policy began to backfire in the last years of the decade as new desktop publishing programs appeared on PC clones that offered some or much of the same functionality of the Macintosh but at far lower price points. The company lost its monopoly in this market, and had already estranged many of its original consumer customer base who could no longer afford their high priced products. The Christmas season of 1989 was the first in the company’s history that saw declining sales, and led to a 20% drop in Apple’s stock price.[53] Gassée’s objections were overruled, and he was forced from the company in 1990. Later that year, Apple introduced three lower cost models, the Macintosh Classic, Macintosh LC and Macintosh IIsi, all of which saw significant sales due to pent up demand.

In 1991, Apple introduced the PowerBook, replacing the “luggable” Macintosh Portable with a design that set the current shape for almost all modern laptops. The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities. It remained the architectural basis for the Classic Mac OS. The success of the PowerBook and other products brought increasing revenue.[50] For some time, Apple was doing incredibly well, introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process. The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the “first golden age” of the Macintosh.[54]

Apple believed the Apple II series was too expensive to produce and took away sales from the low-end Macintosh.[55] In 1990, Apple released the Macintosh LC, which featured a single expansion slot for the Apple IIe Card to help migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform;[55] the Apple IIe was discontinued in 1993.

1991–97: Decline and restructuring

See also: Timeline of the Apple II family

The Penlite was Apple’s first attempt at a tablet computer. Created in 1992, the project was designed to bring the Mac OS to a tablet – but was shelved in favor of the Newton.[56]
The success of Apple’s lower-cost consumer models, especially the LC, also led to cannibalization of their higher priced machines. To address this, management introduced several new brands, selling largely identical machines at different price points aimed at different markets. These were the high-end Quadra, the mid-range Centris line, and the ill-fated Performa series. This led to significant market confusion, as customers did not understand the difference between models.[57]

Apple also experimented with a number of other unsuccessful consumer targeted products during the 1990s, including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, the eWorld online service, and TV appliances. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley’s unrealistic market forecasts.[citation needed] Ultimately, none of these products helped and Apple’s market share and stock prices continued to slide.[citation needed]

Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows by focusing on delivering software to cheap commodity personal computers, while Apple was delivering a richly engineered but expensive experience.[58] Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response; instead, they sued Microsoft for using a GUI similar to the Apple Lisa in Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp.[59] The lawsuit dragged on for years before it was finally dismissed. At this time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines sullied Apple’s reputation, and Sculley was replaced as CEO by Michael Spindler.[60]
The Newton was Apple’s first foray into the PDA markets, as well as one of the first in the industry. Despite being a financial flop at the time of its release, it helped pave the way for the PalmPilot and Apple’s own iPhone and iPad in the future.
By the early 1990s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh, such as A/UX. The Macintosh platform itself was becoming outdated because it was not built for multitasking and because several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware. In addition, Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors such as Sun Microsystems. The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform or reworked to run on more powerful hardware.[61]

In 1994, Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance with the goal of creating a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM and Motorola hardware coupled with Apple software. The AIM alliance hoped that PReP’s performance and Apple’s software would leave the PC far behind and thus counter Microsoft. The same year, Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers to use Motorola’s PowerPC processor.[62]

In 1996, Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. Amelio made numerous changes at Apple, including extensive layoffs and cut costs.[63] After numerous failed attempts to improve Mac OS, first with the Taligent project and later with Copland and Gershwin, Amelio chose to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system and bring Steve Jobs back to Apple.[64]

1997–2007: Return to profitability

Power Mac was a line of Apple Macintosh workstation-class personal computers based on various models of PowerPCmicroprocessors that were developed from 1994 to 2006.
The NeXT deal was finalized on February 9, 1997,[65] bringing Jobs back to Apple as an advisor. On July 9, 1997, Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. Jobs acted as the interim CEO and began restructuring the company’s product line; it was during this period that he identified the design talent of Jonathan Ive, and the pair worked collaboratively to rebuild Apple’s status.[66]

At the 1997 Macworld Expo, Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, and that Microsoft had made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock.[67] On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Online Store, which was tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy.[68][69]

On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac. The iMac design team was led by Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone.[70][71] The iMac featured modern technology and a unique design, and sold almost 800,000 units in its first five months.[72]

During this period,[when?] Apple completed numerous acquisitions to create a portfolio of digital production software for both professionals and consumers. In 1998, Apple purchased Macromedia’s Key Grip software project, signaling an expansion into the digital video editing market. The sale was an outcome of Macromedia’s decision to solely focus upon web development software. The product, still unfinished at the time of the sale, was renamed “Final Cut Pro” when it was launched on the retail market in April 1999.[73][74] The development of Key Grip also led to Apple’s release of the consumer video-editing product iMovie in October 1999.[75] Next, Apple successfully acquired the German company Astarte, which had developed DVD authoring technology, as well as Astarte’s corresponding products and engineering team in April 2000. Astarte’s digital tool DVDirector was subsequently transformed into the professional-oriented DVD Studio Pro software product. Apple then employed the same technology to create iDVD for the consumer market.[75] In 2002, Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake,[76] as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic. The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company. The acquisition was followed by the development of Apple’s consumer-level GarageBand application.[77] The release of iPhoto in the same year completed the iLife suite.[78]

Mac OS X, based on NeXT’s OPENSTEP and BSD Unix, was released on March 24, 2001, after several years of development. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface. To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9, the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications within Mac OS X via the Classic Environment.[79]

On May 19, 2001, Apple opened its first official eponymous retail stores in Virginia and California.[80] On October 23 of the same year, Apple debuted the iPod portable digital audio player. The product, which was first sold on November 10, 2001, was phenomenally successful with over 100 million units sold within six years.[81][82] In 2003, Apple’s iTunes Store was introduced. The service offered online music downloads for $0.99 a song and integration with the iPod. The iTunes store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19, 2008.[83]
Main article: Apple’s transition to Intel processors

The MacBook Pro, Apple’s first laptop with an Intel microprocessor, introduced in 2006.
At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, 2005, Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006.[84] On January 10, 2006, the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to use Intel’s Core Duo CPU. By August 7, 2006, Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced.[84] The Power Mac, iBook and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition; the Mac Pro, MacBook, and MacBook Pro became their respective successors.[85][86] On April 29, 2009, The Wall Street Journalreported that Apple was building its own team of engineers to design microchips.[87] Apple also introduced Boot Camp in 2006 to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X.[88]

Apple’s success during this period was evident in its stock price. Between early 2003 and 2006, the price of Apple’s stock increased more than tenfold, from around $6 per share (split-adjusted) to over $80. In January 2006, Apple’s market cap surpassed that of Dell.[89] Nine years prior, Dell’s CEO Michael Dellhad said that if he ran Apple he would “shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders.”[90] Although Apple’s market share in computers had grown, it remained far behind competitors using Microsoft Windows, accounting for about 8% of desktops and laptops in the US.[citation needed]

Since 2001, Apple’s design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3. This design change began with the titanium-made PowerBook and was followed by the iBook’s white polycarbonate structure and the flat-panel iMac.[91][92]

2007–11: Success with mobile devices

A first generation iPhone, one of Jonathan Ive’s most recognized industrial designs. The iPhone has been phenomenally successful, with over 1 billion units sold worldwide.[93]
During his keynote speech at the Macworld Expo on January 9, 2007, Jobs announced that Apple Computer, Inc. would thereafter be known as “Apple Inc.”, because the company had shifted its emphasis from computers to consumer electronics.[94][95] This event also saw the announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV.[96][97][98][99] The following day, Apple shares hit $97.80, an all-time high at that point. In May, Apple’s share price passed the $100 mark.[100]Apple would achieve widespread success with its iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad products, which introduced innovations in mobile phones, portable music players and personal computers respectively.[101] Furthermore, by early 2007, 800,000 Final Cut Pro users were registered.[102]

In an article posted on Apple’s website on February 6, 2007, Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without digital rights management (DRM), thereby allowing tracks to be played on third-party players, if record labels would agree to drop the technology.[103] On April 2, 2007, Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of DRM technology from EMI’s catalog in the iTunes Store, effective in May 2007.[104] Other record labels eventually followed suit and Apple published a press release in January 2009 to announce the corresponding changes to the iTunes Store.[105]

In July 2008, Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch.[106] Within a month, the store sold 60 million applications and registered an average daily revenue of $1 million, with Jobs speculating in August 2008 that the App Store could become a billion-dollar business for Apple.[107] By October 2008, Apple was the third-largest mobile handset supplier in the world due to the popularity of the iPhone.[108]

On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that 2009 would be the last year the corporation would attend the Macworld Expo, after more than 20 years of attendance, and that senior vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing Philip Schiller would deliver the 2009 keynote address in lieu of the expected Jobs. The official press release explained that Apple was “scaling back” on trade shows in general, including Macworld Tokyo and the Apple Expo in Paris, France, primarily because the enormous successes of the Apple Retail Stores and website had rendered trade shows a minor promotional channel.[109][110]

On January 14, 2009, Jobs announced in an internal memo that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June 2009 and would spend the time focusing on his health. In the email, Jobs stated that “the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well”, and explained that the break would allow the company “to focus on delivering extraordinary products”.[111] Despite Jobs’s absence, Apple recorded its best non-holiday quarter (Q1 FY 2009) during the recession with revenue of $8.16 billion and profit of $1.21 billion.[112][113]

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After years of speculation and multiple rumored “leaks”, Apple unveiled a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, 2010. The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and many iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad. This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, despite very little development time before the release. Later that year on April 3, 2010, the iPad was launched in the US. It sold more than 300,000 units on its first day, and 500,000 by the end of the first week.[114] In May of the same year, Apple’s market cap exceeded that of competitor Microsoft for the first time since 1989.[115]

In June 2010, Apple released the iPhone 4,[116] which introduced video calling, multitasking, and a new uninsulated stainless steeldesign that acted as the phone’s antenna. Later that year, Apple again refreshed its iPod line of MP3 players by introducing a multi-touch iPod Nano, an iPod Touch with FaceTime, and an iPod Shuffle that brought back the buttons of earlier generations.[117][118][119]Additionally, on October 20, Apple updated the MacBook Air laptop, iLife suite of applications, and unveiled Mac OS X Lion, the last version with the name Mac OS X.[120]

In October 2010, Apple shares hit an all-time high, eclipsing $300.[121]
Apple Store in Yonkers, New York
On January 6, 2011, the company opened its Mac App Store, a digital software distribution platform similar to the iOS App Store.[122]

Alongside peer entities such as Atari and Cisco Systems, Apple was featured in the documentary Something Ventured, which premiered in 2011 and explored the three-decade era that led to the establishment and dominance of Silicon Valley.[123]

On January 17, 2011, Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence for an indefinite period to allow him to focus on his health. Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs’s day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain “involved in major strategic decisions”.[124] Apple became the most valuable consumer-facing brand in the world.[125] In June 2011, Jobs surprisingly took the stage and unveiled iCloud, an online storage and syncing service for music, photos, files and software which replaced MobileMe, Apple’s previous attempt at content syncing.[126]

This would be the last product launch Jobs would attend before his death. It has been argued that Apple has achieved such efficiency in its supply chain that the company operates as a monopsony (one buyer, many sellers) and can dictate terms to its suppliers.[127][128][129]In July 2011, due to the American debt-ceiling crisis, Apple’s financial reserves were briefly larger than those of the U.S. Government.[130]

On August 24, 2011, Jobs resigned his position as CEO of Apple.[131] He was replaced by Cook and Jobs became Apple’s chairman. Prior to this, Apple did not have a chairman and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson, who continued with those titles until Levinson became Chairman of the Board in November.[132]

2011–present: Post-Steve Jobs era; Tim Cook leadership
On October 5, 2011, Steve Jobs died, marking the end of an era for Apple.[133][134] The first major product announcement by Apple following Jobs’s passing occurred on January 19, 2012, when Apple’s Phil Schiller introduced iBooks Textbooks for iOS and iBook Author for Mac OS X in New York City.[135] Jobs had stated in his biography that he wanted to reinvent the textbook industry and education.

From 2011 to 2012, Apple released the iPhone 4S[136][137] and iPhone 5,[138][139] which featured improved cameras, an intelligent software assistant named Siri, and cloud-sourced data with iCloud; the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays;[140][141][142] and the iPad Mini, which featured a 7.9-inch screen in contrast to the iPad’s 9.7-inch screen.[143] These launches were successful, with the iPhone 5 (released September 21, 2012) becoming Apple’s biggest iPhone launch with over two million pre-orders[144] and sales of three million iPads in three days following the launch of the iPad Mini and fourth generation iPad (released November 3, 2012).[145]Apple also released a third-generation 13-inch MacBook Pro with a Retina display and new iMac and Mac Mini computers.[142][143][146]

On October 29, 2011, Apple purchased C3 Technologies, a mapping company, for $240 million, making it the third mapping company that Apple has purchased.[147] On January 10, 2012, Apple paid $500 million to acquire Anobit, an Israeli hardware company that developed and supplied a proprietary memory signal processing technology that improved the performance of the flash-memory used in iPhones and iPads.[148][149] On July 24, 2012, during a conference call with investors, Tim Cook said that he loved India, but that Apple was going to expect larger opportunities outside of India. Cook cited the 30% sourcing requirement from India as the reason.[clarification needed][150][151][152][153]

On August 20, 2012, Apple’s rising stock price increased the company’s market capitalization to a world-record $624 billion. This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization set by Microsoft in 1999.[154] On August 24, 2012, a US jury ruled that Samsung should pay Apple $1.05 billion (£665m) in damages in an intellectual property lawsuit.[155] Samsung appealed the damages award, which the Court reduced by $450 million.[156] The Court further granted Samsung’s request for a new trial.[156] On November 10, 2012, Apple confirmed a global settlement that would dismiss all lawsuits between Apple and HTC up to that date, in favor of a ten-year license agreement for current and future patents between the two companies.[157] It is predicted that Apple will make $280 million a year from this deal with HTC.[158]
See also: List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple
A previously confidential email written by Jobs a year before his death was presented during the proceedings of the Apple Inc. v. Samsung Electronics Co. lawsuits and became publicly available in early April 2014. With a subject line that reads “Top 100 – A,” the email was sent only to the company’s 100 most senior employees and outlines Jobs’s vision of Apple Inc.’s future under 10 subheadings. Notably, Jobs declares a “Holy War with Google” for 2011 and schedules a “new campus” for 2015.[159]

In March 2013, Apple filed a patent for an augmented reality (AR) system that can identify objects in a live video stream and present information corresponding to these objects through a computer-generated information layer overlaid on top of the real-world image.[160] Later in 2013, Apple acquired Embark Inc., a small Silicon Valley-based mapping company that builds free transit apps to help smartphone users navigate public transportation in U.S. cities,[161] and PrimeSense, an Israeli 3D sensing company based in Tel Aviv.[162]In December 2013, Apple Inc. purchased social analytics firm Topsy. Topsy is one of a small number of firms with real-time access to the messages that appear on Twitter and can “do real-time analysis of the trends and discussions happening on Twitter”.[163] The company also made several high-profile hiring decisions in 2013. On July 2, 2013, Apple recruited Paul Deneve, Belgian President and CEO of Yves Saint Laurent as a vice president reporting directly to Tim Cook.[164] A mid-October 2013 announcement revealed that Burberry executive Angela Ahrendts will commence as a senior vice president at Apple in mid-2014. Ahrendts oversaw Burberry’s digital strategy for almost eight years and, during her tenure, sales increased to about US$3.2 billion and shares gained more than threefold.[165]

At the Worldwide Developer’s Conference on June 10, 2013, Apple announced the seventh iOS operating system alongside OS X Mavericks, the tenth version of OS X, and a new Internet radio service called iTunes Radio.[166][167][168] iTunes Radio, iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks were released fall 2013.[166][167][169] On December 6, 2013, Apple Inc. launched iBeacon across its 254 U.S. retail stores. Using Bluetooth wireless technology, iBeacon senses the user’s exact location within the Apple store and sends the user messages about products, events and other information, tailored to the user’s location.[170]

Alongside Google vice-president Vint Cerf and AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson, Cook attended a closed-door summit held by President Obama on August 8, 2013, in regard to government surveillance and the Internet in the wake of the Edward Snowden NSA incident.[171][172] On February 4, 2014, Cook met with Abdullah Gül, the President of Turkey, in Ankara to discuss the company’s involvement in the Fatih project.[173] Cook also confirmed that Turkey’s first Apple Retail Store would be opened in Istanbul in April 2014.[174]

An anonymous Apple employee revealed to the Bloomberg media publication that the opening of a Tokyo, Japan, store was planned for 2014. A Japanese analyst has stated, “For Apple, the Japanese market is appealing in terms of quantity and price. There is room to expand tablet sales and a possibility the Japanese market expands if Apple’s mobile carrier partners increase.”[175] As of June 13, 2014, Apple operated three stores in Tokyo.[176] On October 1, 2013, Apple India executives unveiled a plan to expand further into the Indian market, following Cook’s acknowledgment of the country in July 2013 when sales results showed that iPhone sales in India grew 400% during the second quarter of 2013.[177]

Apple Inc. reported that the company sold 51 million iPhones in the Q1 of 2014 (an all-time quarterly record), compared to 47.8 million in the year-ago quarter. Apple also sold 26 million iPads during the quarter, also an all-time quarterly record, compared to 22.9 million in the year-ago quarter. The Company sold 4.8 million Macs, compared to 4.1 million in the year-ago quarter.[178] On May 28, 2014, Apple confirmed its intent to acquire Dr. Dre and Jimmy Iovine’s audio company Beats Electronics—producer of the Beats by Dr. Dre line of headphones and speaker products, and operator of the music streaming service Beats Music—for $3 billion, and to sell their products through Apple’s retail outlets and resellers. Iovine felt that Beats had always “belonged” with Apple, as the company modeled itself after Apple’s “unmatched ability to marry culture and technology.”[179][180][181] In August 2014, an Apple representative confirmed to the media that Anand Lal Shimpi, editor and publisher of the AnandTech website, had been recruited by Apple without elaborating on Lal Shimpi’s role.[182]

Apple has been at the top of Interbrand’s annual Best Global Brands report for 4 years in a row; 2013,[13] 2014,[14] 2015,[15] and 2016, with a valuation of $178.1 billion.[16]

In December 2015, Apple bought a 70,000 square foot wafer fab building in San Jose, CA from Maxim Integrated for $18.2 million.[183]

In 2016, it was revealed that Apple would be making its first original scripted series,[184] a six-episode drama about the life of Dr. Dre. Music Video director Paul Hunter will direct the series.[184]

On May 12, 2016, Apple Inc., invested US$1 billion in Didi Chuxing, a Chinese competitor to Uber.[185][186][187] The Information reported in October 2016 that Apple had taken a board seat in Didi Chuxing,[188] a move that James Vincent of The Verge speculated could be a strategic company decision by Apple to get closer to the automobile industry,[189] particularly Didi Chuxing’s reported interest in self-driving cars.[190]

On June 6, 2016, Forbes released their list of companies ranked on revenue generation. In the trailing fiscal year, Apple appeared on the list as the top tech company.[191] It ranked third, overall, with $233 billion in revenue.[191] This represents a movement upward of two spots from the previous year’s list.[191]

On September 22, 2016, Apple Inc. acquired Tuplejump, an India/US-based machine learning company.[192]

On April 6, 2017, Apple launched Clips, an app that allows iPad and iPhone users to make and edit videos. The app provides a way to produce short videos to share with other users on the Messages app, Instagram, Facebook and other social networks. Apple also introduced Live Titles for Clips that allows users to add live animated captions and titles using their voice.[193]

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Russia

Russia is a country in Eurasia.[13] At 17,075,200 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world by surface area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth’s inhabited land area and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people at the end of March 2016. The European western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the eastern; about 77% of the population live in European Russia. Russia’s capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan.

Cathedral-Mosque moscow

Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire,[19] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus’ ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus’ lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus’. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east.

Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world’s first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world’s first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world’s second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, fifteen independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and sole successor state of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic.

The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia’s extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, tr. Qazaqstan Respwblïkası; Russian: Республика Казахстан, tr. Respublika Kazakhstan), is a transcontinental country in northern Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Kazakhstan is the world’s largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi). Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region’s GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources.

Nur-Astana Mosque at Astana

Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppe, taiga, rock canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18 million people as of 2014, Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per sq. mi.). The capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from Almaty, the country’s largest city.

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic tribes. This changed in the 13th century, when Genghis Khan occupied the country as part of the Mongolian Empire. Following internal struggles among the conquerors, power eventually reverted to the nomads. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz (ancestor branches occupying specific territories). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union.

Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The current President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has been leader of the country since then, and is characterised as authoritarian, with a government history of human rights abuses and suppression of political opposition.[11] Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy, especially its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that “Kazakhstan heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion,” and other human rights organisations regularly describe Kazakhstan’s human rights situation as poor.

Kazakhstan’s 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs (63% of the population), Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars, and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26% Kazakhstan officially allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed.[not verified in body] The Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes.

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How to Copy Your Contacts From Your iPhone to a SIM Card

Contacts from Iphone to SimIf for one reason or another you want to copy your iPhone contacts from your phone to your SIM card, you’re pretty much screwed because Apple doesn’t let you do that easily.

When there’s a will, there’s a jailbreak app! It’s called SIManager and it will help you move your contacts from iPhone to SIM.

SIManager is available on Cydia for free from the iSpazio repo. Simply download the app and launch it to get started…

To import your contacts from your iPhone to your SIM card, hit the little settings icon at the bottom, then hit “Copy iPhone to SIM”. All the contacts you have on your iPhone will be backed up to your SIM card.

Now if you want to move these contacts that are on your SIM to your iPhone, go to Settings > Mail, Contacts, Calendars > Import SIM Contacts. All the contacts that are on your SIM card will be transferred to your iPhone.

Most importantly this app is free, so Enjoy!

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Mongolia

Mongolia [Monggol Ulus] in Mongolian script; Монгол Улс [Mongol Uls] in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China to the south and Russia to the north. While it does not share a border with Kazakhstan, Mongolia is separated from it by only 36.76 kilometers (22.84 mi).

Mongols are expert eagle handlers

At 1,564,116 square kilometers (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 18th largest country in the world and has a population of around three million people. It is also the world’s second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country’s population.

Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture is still integral. The majority of its population are Buddhists. The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of the state’s citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups.

The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan.

In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century. By the early 1900s, almost one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty, and in 1921 established de facto independence from the Republic of China. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People’s Republic was declared as a Soviet satellite state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.

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